India is the country with bid educational problems. There are 2.2% disabled population, or 21,906,769 in India, but NGOs think that the figure to be closer to 6%, or 70 million (Thomas, 2005a; Thomas, 2005b). And most of adults and children with disabilities have not access to education. And even if they finished higher education nobody help these children to enter the mainstream community after finishing their education.
Because of I would like to conduct research in India. In India inclusive education is not developed in comparison with Spain. « There are an estimated 25 million children out of school in India (MHRD 2003 statistics, cited in World Bank, 2004), many of whom are marginalised by dimensions such as poverty, gender, disability, and caste» .
Objectives of research in India
The objectives of this study are as follows:
1. to reveal impact of altruism of teachers on attitude to education of persons with disabilities in India
2. To estimate the state of special needs in inclusive education in the India in terms of resources and practices.
3. To identify effective practice models of special needs in inclusive education for people with disabilities.
4. To provide recommendations to strengthen inclusive education in India
Facts revealed other investigations
Thomas revealed important facts and ideas concerning disability in India. «In India disability is measured in five categories – sight, speech, hearing, locomotor, and mental – which excludes disabilities such as autism. In addition, a person has to be medically certified as having 40% or more of one of these disabilities in order to be counted and so qualified to request ‘benefits’. Whatever the true figure, it is worth noting that according to the 2002 National Sample Survey, only 45% of the disabled population is literate, and 9% has secondary level education or higher» . Importantly, although perceptions of disability of children for data collection may vary from State to State (Table 1 ).
As we can see in Table 1 there are more than 4.3 millions of children (0-14 years) in India.
Some educational programmes have attempted to reach out to these previously excluded children with disabilities. In my opinion the best method of rehabilitation and education of children with disabilities is to emphasize in dialogs whit them that they have no disabilities that they are healthy.
Projects of education of children with disabilities in India
There are some projects of education of children with
disabilities in India :
1. Project for Integrated Education Development (PIED)
2. Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (IEDC)
3. District Primary Education Project (DPEP)
4. District Rehabilitation Centres and National Programme
5. for Rehabilitation for Persons with Disability (NPRPD)
6. UN support to primary education: Community School Programme
7. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) (Movement to Educate All)
Christian churches also wants to be in step with the constraints of the time, established special branches for children with difficulties in learning. But it is still difficult to attract professionals to work with special children. Of course, there are skilled teachers who help children with learning difficulties. For instance, there are the Philanthropic society of the Orthodox church (India) and Catholic Relief Services (India). Sister Nectaria, with the help of Mr. Raju Bharat (President of the PSOC) and Mr. Raphael Maity’s hard work and dedication, administers a range of humanitarian services to Kolkata and the surrounding villages. Health, shelter, education, and the most urgent needs of the poor are all addressed by the PSOC. The PSOC carefully and lovingly tailors services to meet each individual need. With clinics, schools, and community centers throughout the 52 villages of West Bengal, Sister Nectaria works diligently to approach the most urgent and promising cases first. PSOC developed and established the following programs:
• Five Primary schools located in rural areas providing free tuition and text books and all essential school personnel and equipment. –
• A Girls Orphanage with occupancy for two hundred girls.
• Providing Scholarships for higher achievement in education
• Also The Vocational School is completed and functioning with classes in Arts and Sewing and so on
But the situation is complicated by financial problems and state requirements for certification of teachers. Teachers often refuse to work because they are unable to obtain the professional category that allows them to earn a decent wage. This information is proved by other researches. Teachers “expressed a feeling of helplessness as a consequence of large class sizes in not being able to provide greater individual attention to disabled children. This is a major hindrance. Teachers also find it difficult to teach children with severe mental disabilities. All teachers are willing to undergo further training on educating children with disabilities. This attitude is also prevalent in rural areas. The children are referred to as ‘our children’, and there is a sense of pride in every child’s achievement.»
Pilot study in India
I traveled in India in September 2013 year and talked with persons, who taked part in Orphanage with boys and girls with disabilities. India has a very large number of orphans as well as destitute child population. Orphanages operated by the state are generally known as juvenile homes. In addition there is a vast number of privately run orphanages running into thousands spread across the country. These area run by various trusts, religious groups,individual citizens, citizens groups, NGO’s etc. I can suggest, that as results of some pilot data shows, Orphanages can be considered as the centers of inclusive education in India, because Orphanage in India is not only as juvenile homes but informal school and centers of additional education. I am very interested this features of inclusive education in India
I would like to conduct 40 semi-structured interviews in India with teachers, directors of schools and volunteers and persons, who participated in projects of education of children with disabilities in India.
Selection of candidates in the experts bases on the following criteria: education (higher education);
• social status and position of the respondent, which could be linked to an educational work with disabled,
• specifical knowledge of the respondent in this area;
• desire to participate in the study as an expert.
In this article we tried to prove that a lot of problems of inclusive education in India is needed for detailed investigation.
1. Inclusive education in India: interpretation, implementation and issues. Research monograph № 15. 2007 URL: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/1863/1/PTA15.pdf
2. Examples of inclusive education. URL: http://www.unicef.org/rosa/InclusiveInd.pdf
3. Thomas, P. (2005b) Mainstreaming Disability in Development: India Country Report, London: Disability Knowledge and Research. URL: http://disabilitykar.net/research/pol_india.html