социология языка, sociology of language, системно-функциональная лингвистика, systemic functional linguistics, социология управления, sociology of management, дискурс-анализ, CDA, теория кодов легитимации, LCT, Vygotsky, социально-культурная теория Выготского, социальная теория управляемости, social theory of manageability
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Trade Agreements Saudi Arabia

International investment agreements (AI) are divided into two types: (1) bilateral investment agreements and (2) investment contracts. A bilateral investment agreement (ILO) is an agreement between two countries to promote and protect investments made by investors from the countries concerned in the territory of the other country. The vast majority of IDu are bits. The category of contracts with investment rules (TIPs) includes different types of investment contracts that are not BITs. There are three main types of TIPs: 1) global economic contracts that contain commitments that are often included in ILOs (. B, for example, a free trade agreement with an investment chapter); 2. contracts with limited investment provisions (for example. B, investment creation or free transfer of investment-related funds; and 3) contracts that contain only “framework clauses,” such as. B on investment cooperation and/or a mandate for future investment negotiations. In addition to IDAMIT, there is also an open category of investment-related instruments (IRIs). It includes various binding and non-binding instruments, such as model agreements and draft instruments, multilateral conventions on dispute settlement and arbitration rules, documents adopted by international organisations and others. The government`s determination to attract investment has led to a change in mentality in its long-standing policy of preventing special economic zones (SEZ). Free trade zones and zenics are a growing trend in the region and, according to the OECD, have added a global trade value of $500 billion and created employment opportunities for 66 million people in 2018.

The United Arab Emirates has 45 free zones and another 10 are under construction in 2018. Saudi has historically preferred to promote its low-tax, low-cost input framework as a single economic area, but in late 2018 it revealed details of its first SEZ, to be located to Riyadh`s international airport. The area will focus on integrated logistics and allow investors to work according to specific rules and regulations. According to the Federal Customs Authority (FCA), the United Arab Emirates has also signed agreements with the following countries: Islamic Republic of Pakistan (2006), Algerian Republic (2007), Republic of Azerbaijan (2011), Republic of India (2012) Republic of Kazakhstan (2012), Republic of Argentina (2013), Republic of Armenia (2013), Republic of Maldives (2014), Republic of South Korea (2015) and Kingdom of the Netherlands (2015). In June 2009, the GCC signed a free trade agreement with the European Free Trade Area (ETFA) (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland), which was implemented in July 2015. IiA Mapping Project The IIA Mapping Project is a cooperative initiative between UNCTAD and universities around the world to represent the content of II A. The resulting database serves as a tool to understand trends in CEW development, assess the prevalence of different policy approaches, and identify examples of contracts. The Mapping of IIA Content allows you to browse the results of the project (the page will be regularly updated as new results become available). Please quote as: UNCTAD, Mapping of IIA Content, available in investmentpolicy.unctad.org/international-investment-agreements/iia-mapping More information: Mapping Project Description – Methodology document The expansion of global trade, investment and technology in recent decades, Saudi Arabia`s efforts to improve its trade infrastructure also contribute to improving its attractiveness as a foreign direct investment (FDI) site. One of the main objectives of the 2030 vision is to increase the payout to the country from 3.8% of GDP to 5.7%. However, to meet this challenge, it will be necessary to reverse a negative trend in foreign investment, which has continued for several years.

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